<– Part 66 – October 24, 1915  | Part 67 – October 31, 1915 |  Part 68 – November 7, 1915 –>

Europe at the beginning of the war. Note that Italy has subsequently switched sides and joined the Entente, while Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire have joined the Central Powers. Greece is leaning towards the Allies, while Romania and Albania would seem to be leaning towards the Central Powers.

The battles on the Western front of Europe, including Artois and Champagne, continue. The offensives in Serbia continue, and there are reports of minor skirmishing in both South Arabia, between the British Empire and the Ottomans, and in eastern Poland/west Russia, between the forces of the German and Russian Empires.

On October 27, a French army landed in Salonika to open a new front in the Balkans against the Bulgarians, Austro-Hungarians, Ottomans, and their allies. Serbia’s forces are being routed, but there is hope that this new front will allow an area for Serbian troops to retreat, should that be necessary.

Otherwise, this All Hallow’s Eve, 1915, sees little new in the world.


<– Part 65 – October 17, 1915  | Part 66 – October 24, 1915 |  Part 67 – October 31, 1915 –>

Svetozar Boroević, the brilliant Austro-Hungarian general whose defense in depth tactics elevated him to the nobility and rank of Generalfeldmarschall by the end of the war.

The Entente actions at Artois and Champagne continue, although the seemingly-desperate attacks on the Hohenzollern Redoubt have resulted in little but the bloodletting of a generation, as the redoubt remains in German hands. While the German line seemed to have faltered, the Germans’ new “defense in depth” technique, with features multiple parallel lines of trenches to fall back into, has led to a foundering offensive by the British and French (although the British have claimed major gains at Champagne).

The Bulgarian offensives at Morava and Ovche Pole continue forcing back the Serbian army, although the Bulgarians have been held up at the fortresses of Pirot and Zajecar. Gains are still being made against the French at Krivolak. October 19 saw Italy and Russia declare war upon Bulgaria.

October 18 saw the Italian army surge against the Isonzo for the third time, although they appear to be making some gains this time. It is worth noting, however, that the Austro-Hungarian field marshall, Svetozar Boroević, is able to hold off enemy forces that outnumber him at a greater than 2:1 margin across all metrics – arms, troops, and artillery and heavy equipment.


<– Part 64 – October 10, 1915  | Part 65 – October 17, 1915 |  Part 66 – October 24, 1915 –>

7,000 more men have died in this small area, with nothing to show for it.

The fighting continues at Artois and Champange. The fighting at the Hohenzollern Redoubt has flaired up; the British have suffered enormous casualties in the first few minutes, and do not seem able to retake it.

October 14 saw Bulgaria’s declaration of war again Serbia (followed by the United Kingdom
and France declaring war on Bulgaria on the 15th and 16th, respectively). The result of intense negotiations by all sides, it would appear the Central Powers have won. Because of Bulgaria’s strategic placement, the Entente powers would have benefited with another ally in the region (and one to engage the Ottomans and relieve Greece), while the Central Powers now have an uninterrupted land connection to all main fronts – Western, Eastern, Baltic, Mediterranean, and Turkish.

A German postcard commemorating Bulgaria’s entrance into the war on Germany’s side. The text reads “Bulgaria with us!”

Bulgarian troops have surged across the Morava river valley, and fierce fighting near Pirot continues, with the harsh weather dealing its own toll on the belligerents. Farther south, Bulgaria has advanced in the Ovche Pole plain, and, after defeating the Serbian troops at Kumanovo with decisive cavalry maneuvering, have engaged French forces at Krivolak.


<– Part 63 – October 3, 1915  | Part 64 – October 10, 1915 |  Part 65 – October 17, 1915 –>

Map of the Serbian campaign, renewed in 1915.

October 7 saw Serbia invaded by Germany and Austria-Hungary. Fierce fighting took place around Belgrade, which fell to the invaders October 9.

With Bulgaria having entered the way, German is now able to send heavy artillery (with well-trained and experienced crews) to Gallipoli, along with modern aircraft. The Allied lines find themselves viciously attacked by this new enemy.


In Mesopotamia, surprised at the ferocity and early successes of the British force, the Ottomans have formed a new army to defend Baghdad.

General Goltz.

The German general Colmar Freiherr von der Goltz, currently commanding the Ottoman First Army, has been reassigned to this one. The 72-year-old is a renowned military historian and tactician, having written several books on the subject.

<– Part 62 – September 26, 1915  | Part 63 – October 3, 1915 |  Part 64 – October 10, 1915 –>

Benedetto Brin steaming at high speed.



Battle Plan near Loos. Loos is in the lower-right quadrant. The Hohenzollern Redoubt is due north. Note the British line of advance from September 23 to October 10.

Close-up on the Hohenzollern Redoubt. Starting British lines in blue, German in red. All of the German lines in the photo were initially captured except the northernmost around Mad Point.

Another view of the battle

The attack at Loos continued for several days, with some noticeable advances around the Hohenzollern Redoubt, but the British attack came to an end September 28. Several counter-attacks were launched by the Germans, and by October 3 they had regained the Redoubt, erasing most of the British advances in the area.








Action near Kut – Es Sinn, securing a British victory over the lower Tigris and Euphrates rivers.

September 28 also saw the British expeditionary force advancing on Baghdad score a victory at Es

British Indian cavalry advancing near the Tigris.

Sinn, capturing the strategic point at the lower base of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers. A risky attack was nearly unravelled when the British Indian troops had several deserters carry the plans to the Ottomans; however, the Ottoman general refused to believe in such a risky operation and was caught unprepared. After fierce fighting, the Ottomans withdraw from the field with 5,300 casualties to the British 1,200.

British and French forces have landed in Greece to assist in attacks there against the Austro-Hungarians and Germans. Meanwhile, skirmishing continues in South Arabia between British and Ottoman forces.