<– Part 109 – August 20, 1916  | Part 110 – August 27, 1916 |  Part 111 – September 3, 1916 –>

Following six days of fighting, the Bulgarian army conquered all Macedonia territory east of the Struma River on August 23. Meanwhile, to the West, the Chegan offensive is stalling, as Serbian reinforcements, coupled with Bulgarian ammunition shortages, is hindering further advances beyond the recently-captured Florina.

The German East Africa defense forces suffered a defeat at the hands of the British August 24 at Mlali.

Earlier this morning, August 27, Romania entered the war on the side of the Allies, and sent three armies through barely-defended passes in the Carpathian mountains into Austro-Hungarian Transylvania. One Austrian army opposes the advance, and several villages have been lost to the Romanians. Casualties have been minimal thus far, but only because resistance has been minimal as well.

<– Part 108 – August 13, 1916  | Part 109 – August 20, 1916 |  Part 110 – August 27, 1916 –>

Fighting at the Isonzo – the sixth battle to date at that location – ended August 17, with minimal gains by the Italians, yet still counted as a victory. 30,000 Italian and 8,000 Austro-Hungarian soldiers are dead, with a further 21,000 and 34,000 wounded.

In Macedonia, the Central Powers launched an offensive intended to disrupt a perceived Allied assault, with the threat of Romania joining the Allies looming. The assault was launched towards Florina and Chegan, and took Lerin early on.

Fighting at Doiran ended August 18, as additional Allied attacks against the Bulgarians on the 15, 16, and 18th all failed. 3,200 Allied soldiers have fallen, with 900 Bulgarian casualties.

At Verdun, Fleury was recaptured by the French.

At the Somme, the armies are entrenching as attention seems to focus towards Verdun. Brusilov’s advance continues.

<– Part 107 – August 6, 1916  | Part 108 – August 13, 1916 |  Part 109 – August 20, 1916 –>

At Pozieres, in the Somme campaign, a German counter-attack took Allied trenches August 7. An Australian platoon, reduced to 8 men, was surrounded & passed in the advance. Its commander, Lt. Albert Jacka, led a charge with his half-dozen men against the Germans lines, which was sufficient to inspire the other Australian units to attack. This rally captured the Germans. No more fighting has happened at Pozieres since then, and the town is still firmly in Allied hands.

The fighting at Kowel ended August 8, with the Brusilov offensive complete stalled – massive assaults against defended trenches seem ineffective. The Russians have now suffered 500,000 casualties in the offensive, a crippling hit to manpower.

Falls’ Sketch Map 10 Stages of Battle of Romani to Bir el Abd

At the Isonzo, and following the Battle of Doberdo yesterday (an exceptionally bloody fight – of the 50,000 Italians and 20,000 Austrians, 14,000 Italians and 9,500 Austrians have fallen – 24,000 out of the 70,000 total!), Gorizia has been taken by the Italians, and a bridgehead across the river established.

Sinai area of operations

August 9 saw the Russian Caucasus Army in possession of Bitlis and the surrounded area. The Ottoman offensive is collapsing, with nearly 30,000 killed. Persian operations also are shifting towards an Allied advantage.

In Macedonia, 4 Allied divisions attacked one entrenched Bulgarian division, and were repulsed on the 9th and 10th.

Following the Battle of Romani, in the Sinai, British forces pursuing the retreating German/Ottoman/Austrian forces harassed them for several days, until the Ottoman rearguard positions were encountered near Bir el Abd, an Ottoman base. British supplies are stretched thin, so they are awaiting infrastructure improvements before continuing.

At Verdun, continual French counter-attacks are failing to regain much ground lost to the German attack 2 weeks ago.

<– Part 106 – July 30, 1916  | Part 107 – August 6, 1916 |  Part 108 – August 13, 1916 –>

The first day of August saw a surprise German attack towards Fort Souville at Verdun advancing nearly 1km. French counter-attacks have been unable to recapture much of the land thus far.

At the Somme, on August 4, week-long preparations for a dusk attack (necessitating troop organizations in daytime, which required custom trench digging), following last week’s failed offensive by the Australian forces, have come to fruition as the Australian forces capture more than expected of the German trenches, including Hill 160 near Pozieres. The Germans have replied with an intense, nearly 360 degree artillery bombardment on the salient, but a German attack this morning was unable to breach the Allied lines.

The Australian 8th Light Horse at Romani, defending the Sinai peninsula and Suez canal

The Italian battleship Leonardo da Vinci capsized during the night of August 2/3, following an internal explosion. While it is possible that unstable compounds used in the engines are to cause, attention has turned to possible sabotage by Austria-Hungary.

The Ottoman Empire launched an invasion of the Sinai peninsula on August 3, which lead to fighting through the 5th at Romani. Australian & New Zealand mounted troops skirmished and checked the combined German-Ottoman-Austrian advance long enough for thirst & overextended supply lines to lead to a retreat by the invading forces. 1,200 of the 14,000 British soldiers fell, to the enemy 9,200 out of 16,000 (including 4,000 prisoners).

The Isonzo saw the sixth offensive launched on August 6, with an Italian offensive against Gorizia succeeding in capturing supply roads in the area. 22 Italian divisions have forced a retreat on the 9 Austro-Hungarian divisions in several sectors. On the western edge of the Karst Plateau, 50,000 Italians nearly encircled 20,000 Austrians before the Austrians retreated. 14,000 Italians and 9,500 Austro-Hungarians have been killed, wounded, captured, or are missing.

Ottoman forces are attempting to counter the Russian advance in the Caucasus, while at Darfur, the British commander has broken off discussions with the Sultan, as it has become apparent the Sultan is merely stalling for time as his own forces desert and the Anglo-Egyptian forces become stronger.