<– Part 222 – October 20, 1918 | Part 223 – October 27, 1918 | Part 224 – November 3, 1918

The last German forces in the Caucasus were evacuated October 21, leaving the Ottomans to their own devices.

Italian machine gun nest atop Monte Grappa

Reaching Aleppo on October 23, in their pursuit of the crumbling Ottoman force of 20,000 (though only 4,000 are combat-ready), the combined British and Arab forces encouraged the Ottoman garrison to surrender but were refused. Although plans were drawn up for an attack on the city the morning of the 26, the Arabs attacked the night before, and after hours of intense hand-to-hand fighting in the streets, the garrison surrendered at 10am, just as the British armored cars were arriving for the attack. Elements have managed to evacuate north, including Ottoman general Mustafa Pasha.

North of Baghdad, British forces defeated the Ottomans at Sharqat, also on the 23rd, as their press to capture the key Ottoman oil fields.

The Italian army launched a large offensive on October 24, the one-year anniversary of their humiliating withdrawal following the battle of Caporetto. Nine Italian divisions attacked Monte Grappa to push the nine Austro-Hungarian divisions off; although the defenders were reinforced with an additional six divisions, their withdrawal is expected. Centered around Vittorio Veneto, the front-wide offensive includes nearly 1.5 million Italians and 1.8 million Austro-Hungarians. The Italians have secured a hold across the Piave river, while Austro-Hungarian elements have refused orders to counter-attack, hindering their defensive efforts.

On the Western front, British forces cross the Selle river October 25, following a failed German counter-attack the day before.

In response to crumbling German defenses, Erich Ludendorff was forced to resign October 26 as First Quartermaster-General of the German General Staff, a role which has seen him essentially as a co-dictator with Hindenburg.

On October 27, the United States Army expelled the final German divisions from the Champagne region, ending the 3-week battle at the Blanc Mont Ridge.

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